Seasons for Growing Different Crops in India: Rabi and Kharif
What Are Rabi Crops?
Rabi crops are winter crops that are sown in October or November and harvested in April or May. The term "rabi" means "spring" in Hindi, as these crops are harvested in the spring. Some of the main Rabi crops grown in India include:
Wheat: One of the most important Rabi crops, wheat is the staple food of millions of Indians. It is grown in many parts of the country, but the major producing states include Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and Bihar.
Barley: Another important Rabi crop, barley is used for brewing beer and making malt. It is grown mainly in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Himachal Pradesh.
Gram: it is also called as chickpea. It is a legume crop grown mostly in north, central, west and peninsular India
Mustard: This oilseed crop is grown mainly in the states of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana.
Peas: A pulse crop and commonly grown in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
Potato: This is also a Rabi crop, Potato is grown mostly in states like West Bengal, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and some part of North India.
These are some of the main Rabi crops grown in India. However, depending on the region and state, other crops such as oats, safflower, linseed, and fennel may also be grown during the Rabi season.
What Are Kharif Crops?
Kharif crops are summer crops that are sown in June or July and harvested in October or November. The term "kharif" means "autumn" in Hindi, as these crops are harvested in the fall. Some of the main Kharif crops grown in India include:
Rice: One of the most important Kharif crops, rice is the staple food of millions of Indians. It is grown in many parts of the country, but the major producing states include West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Punjab.
Maize: Another important Kharif crop, maize is a cereal crop grown mainly in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar and Karnataka.
Sorghum: it is also known as jowar, grown mostly in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and some part of Madhya Pradesh.
Pulses: Crops like tur, urad, moong, arhar(Toor, Urad, Moong, Arhar) and pigeon pea(known as Arhar or Toor in India) are the Kharif crop and mostly grown in Central and Southern India.
Millets: Crops such as pearl millet(bajra) and finger millet(ragi) are Kharif crop and grown mostly in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
Soybeans: This oilseed crop grown in India, majorly in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
These are some of the main Kharif crops grown in India. However, depending on the region and state, other crops such as Cotton, sugarcane, groundnut may also be grown during the Kharif season.
Difference between rabi crops and kharif crops
Rabi crops and Kharif crops are the two main types of crops grown in India, which are grown in different seasons and have different characteristics.
The main differences between Rabi and Kharif crops are:
Season: Rabi crops are winter crops that are sown in October or November and harvested in April or May. Kharif crops are summer crops that are sown in June or July and harvested in October or November.
Soil moisture: Rabi crops are sown after the monsoon season, when the soil has sufficient moisture. Kharif crops are sown during the monsoon season, when the soil is saturated with water.
Temperature: Rabi crops are grown in cooler temperatures and require less water than Kharif crops. Kharif crops are grown in higher temperatures and require more water.
Crops: Rabi crops mainly include wheat, barley, peas, gram, and mustard. Kharif crops mainly include rice, maize, sorghum, millet, soybeans and various pulses.
Weather: Rabi crops are less affected by weather conditions than Kharif crops, as the Rabi crops are grown in winter when the weather is relatively stable. Kharif crops, on the other hand, are more susceptible to weather conditions like flood and drought.
In summary Rabi and Kharif are two types of crop seasons, with different characteristics, grown in different months under different weather conditions, with different crops suited to the respective season.
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