Tips for growing groundnuts
How can we boost the yields of groundnuts using good growing techniques?
As a groundnut farmer, there are three things that need to remember to increase groundnut yields:
• Choosing a quality groundnut variety
• Groundnut plant nutrient requirements
• Crop safety precautions
India's cultivation of groundnuts
In India, groundnut is a significant oilseed crop, with seeds having between 45 and 51 % oil and 26 % protein. Raw, roasted, or used to confections are all ways to consume kernels. Nuts are a good source of copper, arginine, foliate, and the vitamins A, B, and E. Growing groundnut crops enhances the health of your soil since the roots contain bacteria that fix nitrogen. The groundnut crop is farmed during the rainy kharif and summer and rabi seasons with irrigation. The ideal temperature range for this crop is between 25°C and 30°C. Because there are many pests and diseases during the kharif season, yields are impacted by overcast weather. It requires 450–1250 mm of rainfall annually to survive.
Groundnut farming is best suited to light alluvial, red sandy loamy soils because they facilitate easy pegging and pod development. The crop's ability to access nutrients in the soil depends on the management of the soil's ideal pH. Crop waste must be removed in order to prevent soil-borne fungus from harming the following crop.
To remove clods and get a fine tilth and pulverized soil, plough the soil up to a depth of 15-20 cm. You can plant groundnut on flat beds or broad ridges. Additionally, groundnuts can be planted in soils that are ideal for intercropping practises and have a 0.4–0.8% slope with extensive ridges and valleys to help drain water during periods of severe rainfall.
Variety of groundnuts available
It is best to choose varieties with excellent yields and great resistance to pests and illnesses. In semi-arid regions, choosing cultivars of short duration is crucial for surviving drought episodes.
If self-stored seeds are not an option, it is crucial to purchase seeds from reputable companies that have been certified. Before one week of seeding, a germination test should be performed, and seeds with germination rates more than 90% should be used. Higher seed rates should be decided upon in accordance with the germination percentage if it is lower.
Groundnut Seeding Rate: The seed rate ranges from 75 to 110 kg per acre depending on the seed weight and sowing period.
Treatment for groundnut seeds: 3g of Mancozeb and Trichoderma viridae or 1g of Tebuconazole 2DS. The seeds should be treated with 2ml of imidacloprid per kg of seed in locations where the illness peanut stem necrosis is common. If you have a heavier white grub infestation, you should treat your seeds with 2ml of imidacloprid per kg of seed. It is necessary to inoculate groundnut seeds with rhizobium culture if you plan to cultivate groundnuts in rice fallows or on virgin soil. The seeds should be treated with Trichoderma viride at a rate of 4g/kg seed in places where collar rot, stem rot, and root rot diseases are common. The seeds must first be treated with an insecticide, then they must be shade dried, and finally they must be treated with a fungicide. Finally, if necessary, seeds can also be inoculated with Rhizobium.
Sowing groundnuts: The soil should be sufficiently moist at the time of sowing. large areas can be sown quickly and affordably by using a tractor-mounted seed drill, which also saves on labor costs.
When to Plant: The ideal time to plant groundnuts varies depending on the region.
Best Soils for Growing Groundnuts
Chalka and red sandy loam soils are both ideal for growing plants in sandy loam soils. For growing groundnuts, soils with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5 and higher organic matter are ideal. Groundnut crops cannot be grown in soils with a lot of clay or that are very dark.
Groundnut Soil and Nutrient Management
In the final ploughing operation, 4-5 tons/acre of fully decomposed organic manure should be spread. Different ICAR/Universities suggested fertilizer doses can be adopted by local farmers. Fertilizer doses vary depending on whether crops are rainfed or irrigated. Your need for chemical fertilizer can be decreased if you have applied phosphorous solubilizing bacteria (PSB) to the soil and treated your seeds with Rhizobium.
When the plants are in the flowering stage and under irrigation, 200 kg/acre of gypsum should be spread between the rows. Gypsum application should be followed by weeding and earthing up. Gypsum should be sprayed in rainfed settings at the time of peg penetration (45 days after sowing), or at the time of second weeding. After 45 days after sowing (DAS), no intercultural operations should be conducted. The manures and fertilizer can be evenly spread around the area.
Micronutrients are essential for the growth of plants. Applying zinc at 10-20 kg/h once every three years and born at 3-4 kg/ha during land preparation has been observed to boost peanut yields.
Farmers should use site-specific fertilizer and apply manure if they are aware of the nutritional status of their soils as shown by their soil health cards.
Management of groundnut weeds and cross-cultural operations.
Weed control is essential in the early days, but after 45 DAS, weeding is not necessary because the groundnut crop cannot compete with weeds for 3 to 6 weeks after sowing. The label-recommended herbicides (Alachlor 50% at 1 lit/acre (or) pendimethalin 30% at 1.3-1.6 lit/acre (or) butachlor 50% at 1.25-1.5 lit/acre) that can be mixed with 200 litres of water and applied immediately after sowing or within 2-3 days after sowing as a pre-emergence application should be used for chemical weed control practises.
If pre-emergence herbicides are not used, Imazethapyr 10% at 300 ml/acre (or) Quizalofop ethyl 5% at 400 ml/acre should be mixed with 200 litres of water and administered to the weeds between the rows within 21 DAS, when they are in the 2-3 leaf stage. After 20, 25, and 30 DAS, inter-cultivation can be started using portable tools like gorru. No intercultural activities should be carried out after the crop has grown for 45 days because doing so will disrupt the formation of the pegs, which will reduce the yield.
Management of groundnut irrigation
400-450mm of water are required for groundnuts. It needs 8 to 9 irrigations when cultivated in light soils. The key stages, peg penetration (40–45 DAS) and pod development (85–90 DAS), call for irrigation, if available. Sprinkler irrigation enhances crop yields while allowing for up to 25% water savings.